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There Is So Much Knowledge About Microphones, Don't Overlook It

The quality of sound quality is closely related to the microphone. Whether performing, recording, live or other occasions, different microphones are suitable for use. Picking the right set of microphones can help us get the right sound.
The quality of sound quality is closely related to the microphone. Whether performing, recording, live or other occasions, different microphones are suitable for use. Picking the right set of microphones can help us get the right sound.
First of all, according to different needs and applications, we use three common microphones, dynamic microphones, condenser microphones and USB microphones to explain.
 
1.The Type of Microphone
From the perspective of sound principle and structure, the microphones can be divided into dynamic and condenser microphones.
 
①Dynamic microphone
Dynamic microphones are common in usages such as stage performances or vocal recordings. The principle of its radio is to use the coil to amplify the voltage generated by the vibration and convert it into an electronic signal through the movement of the diaphragm. The high-frequency radio curve is smooth and the pickup sound is softer.
 
②Condenser microphone
The sensitivity and frequency response of condenser microphones can pick up more sound details, are more sensitive to noise, and have higher requirements for space.
Condenser microphones need to use 48V phantom power (phantom power) for an additional power supply. You should pay attention to if the device used can provide additional power.
USB麦克风
 
 
2.The Parameters of the Microphone
When buying a microphone, we can see a lot of introductions about parameters on the product manual, which are very complicated for beginners. Now we will do a quick explanation of these parameters in as concise terms as possible to help you choose the right microphone!
 
①Polar Pattern
The polar pattern refers to the pickup direction of the microphone. Microphones with different patterns are suitable for different usage scenarios. Some full-featured microphones also support switching between different patterns.
For example, an omnidirectional microphone or a figure-8 microphone (or bi-directional mic) can pick up sound sources at 360° or in front of and behind the microphone, respectively, but it is also easy to pick up unwanted sounds. Therefore, we can choose the corresponding mic according to the different usage scenarios.
If you only want to pick up the sound source in a certain direction, you can use two patterns to pick up the sound in one direction: cardioid and supercardioid. This type of microphone could capture the sound in a specific direction and is not sensitive to the sound source from other directions, which can reduce a lot of noise.

 
②Microphone diaphragm
Microphone diaphragms can be divided into two types: large diaphragms and small diaphragms, which can be selected according to the needs of users.
At present, the industry believes that a diaphragm larger than 3/4 inches is a large-diaphragm, and a diaphragm smaller than 5/8 inches is a small diaphragm.
Generally speaking, a large-diaphragm microphone has a large diameter and high sensitivity, and can be used to capture very small sound waves, so it can pick up a lot of sound details, usually used for singing, vocal and instrument recording, etc. Since more details are picked up, the requirements for the use environment will be higher. Otherwise, noise is easily picked up.
Small-diaphragm microphones, while not as sensitive as large-diaphragm microphones, are better at capturing high-frequency and transient sound signals, such as percussion instruments or speakers.
 
③Sensitivity
The higher the sensitivity value, the easier it is to receive sound waves and generate a signal. Therefore, the higher the sensitivity, the better the pickup effect.
 
④Signal-to-Noise Ratio
It refers to the volume difference between the signal and the noise of the microphone itself. A larger value indicates that the signal is much louder than its noise. When the signal is large, the noise generated by the microphone itself can be ignored and will not affect the sound recording. It is generally considered that the S/N Ratio greater than 69dB is a standard value.

⑤Impedance
Microphones are divided into low, medium and high impedance microphones. A low impedance value (150-600ohms) is generally recommended.
 
⑥Maximum SPL
It refers to the sound pressure value that the microphone can receive loud sound without distortion.
 
⑦Microphone Jack
The most common jack for microphones is the XLR connector. Of course, there are also connectors designed for special equipment. For example, USB microphones are with USB connectors, on-camera mics are with 3.5mm connectors, and IOS microphones are with Lightning connectors.
 
3.Do you need anything other than a microphone?
When recording, if you encounter some plosive (such as B, F, P), it is more likely to have pops, which are difficult to deal with in the post-production stage.
These pops can be isolated and the quality of the recording can be improved by using a foam or a Pop filter.
Some studios also have shock mounts to reduce the effects of vibration on pickups. Condenser microphones are very sensitive to slightly vibrating sounds, and shock mounts can also reduce some physical vibrations.
 

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